What Do Eggs Do in Baking?

Eggs are a key ingredient in many baked goods, but what do they actually do? Find out how eggs help to create light, fluffy cakes, rich and creamy custards, and more.

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Eggs are an essential ingredient in baking. They add structure, leavening, color, and flavor to baked goods. Here’s a look at what eggs do in different types of recipes:

In cakes and quick breads, eggs help to create a light and airy texture. They also add moistness and flavor.

In cookies and other treats, eggs help to bind the ingredients together. They also add moistness and flavor.

In pies and pastries, eggs help to create a flaky texture. They also add moistness and flavor.

The Science of Baking with Eggs

Eggs are commonly used in baking and there are several reasons for this. Eggs help to leaven baked goods, add structure and stability, moisten, bind, and emulsify. In this article we’ll explore the science behind each of these functions so that you can better understand how they work and why they’re important.

The Role of Eggs in Baking

Eggs play a significant role in the baking process. In cakes, they act as leavening agents, binding agents, and add moisture and richness. When eggs are used as a leavening agent, they help the cake to rise by adding air bubbles to the batter. When eggs are used as a binding agent, they help to hold all of the ingredients together. The fat in the egg yolks also helps to create a moist and rich texture in cakes.

There are several different ways that eggs can be used in baking. They can be beaten whole and added to the batter, or they can be separated into yolks and whites. Egg whites can be beaten separately and added to the batter for extra lift, or they can be used as a topping for meringues or soufflés. Yolks can be added to the batter for richness, or they can be cooked separately and used as a filling for tartlets or pies.

When using eggs in baking, it is important to follow recipes closely and use fresh, high-quality eggs. Eggs that are old or have been mishandled are more likely to cause problems in baking, so it is best to avoid them if possible.

The Science of Baking with Eggs

Eggs are one of the most important ingredients in baking. They provide structure, leavening, richness, color, and flavor. It’s no wonder that bakers often say, “Baking is a science, but eggs are the magic.”

To understand how important eggs are in baking, it helps to know a little bit about the science of baking. Baked goods are made up of two main types of ingredients: wet ingredients and dry ingredients. Wet ingredients, like eggs, milk, and butter, contain water. Dry ingredients, like flour and sugar, don’t contain water.

When you mix wet and dry ingredients together, the water in the wet ingredients starts to interact with the flour in the dry ingredients. This interaction starts to form gluten, which is a protein that gives baked goods their structure. The more gluten that forms, the tougher your baked goods will be.

Eggs help to control the formation of gluten in baked goods. When you add eggs to a recipe, they coat the proteins in the flour and prevent them from interacting with each other and forming gluten. This makes for tender baked goods with a soft texture.

Eggs also help leaven baked goods by trapping air bubbles. As eggs cook, they start to firm up and create a network that traps air bubbles. These air bubbles make baked goods rise and give them a light texture.

In addition to all of these magical properties, eggs also add fat and color to baked goods. The yolks in particular are full of fat and color pigments that can enhance the flavor and appearance of your baked treats.

The Different Types of Eggs

Eggs are one of the most important ingredients in baking. They provide structure, leavening, richness, and color. There are many different types of eggs, and each type has its own unique properties. Let’s learn about the different types of eggs and what they do in baking.

Chicken Eggs

Chicken eggs are by far the most commonly used type of egg in both commercial and home baking, and given that they are so readily available, they are often taken for granted. It’s important to remember that not all chicken eggs are created equal, however. Eggs come in different sizes, which is why recipes will often specify “large” or “extra-large” eggs rather than simply “chicken eggs.” The size of the egg will affect the ratio of yolk to white, as well as the overall volume of the egg.

In general, you can substitute one large egg for two medium eggs or three small eggs. But if a recipe calls for a specific size of egg and you don’t have that size on hand, it’s best to head to the store before attempting to bake with what you do have.

Similarly, it is also important to note that chicken eggs come in different grades. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classifies chicken eggs into three grades: AA, A, and B. The grade is determined based on the quality of the egg white and yolk, as well as the condition of the shells. Eggs with clean, unbroken shells and firm whites earn an AA rating, while those with minor imperfections receive a grade of A. Eggs with blood spots, feathers embedded in the shell, or other serious defects are classified as grade B.

The vast majority of commercially sold chicken eggs in the United States are grade A or AA. Grade B eggs can still be used for baking purposes, but they may impact the appearance or texture of your finished product. For example, cakes made with grade B eggs may not rise as high as those made with higher-quality eggs.

Duck Eggs

Duck eggs are very similar to chicken eggs, but they are slightly larger and have a higher fat content. This makes them ideal for baking, as they produce a richer finished product. Duck eggs also have a slightly different flavor than chicken eggs, which some people prefer.

Goose Eggs

Goose eggs are very large, averaging about twice the size of a chicken egg. They have a slightly elongated shape and a thick, hard white that surrounds a large yolk. Goose eggs have a rich flavor and are often used in baking, where they produce larger, fluffier cakes and muffins. Because of their size, goose eggs can be difficult to find in stores.

How to Use Eggs in Baking

Eggs are one of the most important ingredients in baking. They provide structure, leavening, and richness. All of these properties come from the proteins in eggs. When you beat eggs, the proteins unwind and then re-bind to each other, trapping air and creating foam. This is why eggs are often used in souffles, meringues, and cakes.

Beating Eggs

Beating is the process of incorporating air into eggs for various purposes, such as making them light and fluffy. The more you beat, the more air you incorporate, and the lighter the texture of your baked goods will be. For example, when making a cake, you want to beat the eggs until they are light and frothy before adding them to the rest of the ingredients.

Adding Eggs to a Mixture

Eggs are a key ingredient in many baking recipes, but understanding how they work can be tricky. Here’s a look at what eggs do in baking, and how to use them for the best results.

The primary function of eggs in baking is to provide structure. This is why you’ll often see recipes call for whole eggs, rather than just the egg white or the yolk. The whites add lift and lightness, while the yolks add richness and moisture. Together, they create a more stable structure that can better withstand the heat of baking.

Eggs also act as a leavening agent, helping cakes and soufflés to rise. When used in large quantities, they can also help to create a lighter, fluffier texture. Finally, eggs can be used as a binding agent, helping to hold ingredients together. This is why you’ll often see recipes that call for “1 egg, beaten.”

When adding eggs to a mixture, it’s important to do so slowly and carefully. Beating the eggs too quickly can result in too much air being incorporated into the mixture, which can cause your baked goods to collapse. Adding them too slowly can result in a heavy, dense product. For best results, add the eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition.

Separating Eggs

Separating eggs is easy once you know how. The process is basically the same whether you’re separating yolks from whites or whole eggs. All you need is a clean, dry bowl and a little bit of patience.

Here’s how to separate eggs, step by step:

-Using a clean, dry bowl, gently crack the egg open on one side of the shell.
-Hold the egg over the bowl and allow the yolk to fall into the center while the white runs off into the bowl.
-Repeat with the remaining eggs.

You can also use a different method to separate eggs:

-Place a strainer over a clean, dry bowl.
-Carefully crack an egg open on one side of the shell and pour it into the strainer.
-The yolk will fall through into the bowl while the white stays in the strainer.
-Repeat with remaining eggs.


Eggs play an important role in many baked goods and desserts. They add structure, leavening, moisture, and color. Without eggs, cakes and cookies would be dense and rubbery, muffins would be tough and flat, and custards and pudding would not set.

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